Patient Education

Learn About Your Eyes

Being only about 1″ wide, 1″ deep and 0.9″ tall, the eye is a compact and amazingly complex organ.

The tough, outermost layer of the eye is called the sclera. This maintains the shape of the eye. The front part of this layer is clear and is called the cornea. All light must first pass through the cornea when it enters the eye. Attached to the sclera are six muscles that move the eye, called the extraocular muscles.

Chart showing the anatomy of the eye

Conjunctiva

Mucous membrane lining the inner surface of the eyelids and covering the front part of the sclera (white part of eye), responsible for keeping the eye moist.

Sclera

White part of the eye. Tough covering that (with the cornea) forms the external, protective coat of the eye.

Cornea

Transparent tissue that forms the front part of the eyeball, covering the iris and pupil. The cornea is the first part of the eye that bends (or refract s) the light and provides most of the focusing power.

Iris

Actually classified as a muscle, the iris is the colored part of the eye in front of the crystalline lens that regulates the amount of light that enters the eye by adjusting the size of the pupil in the center.

Pupil

This is the black opening in the center of the eye where light enters. Pupil size changes when the iris tenses or relaxes depending on the amount of light present.

Crystalline Lens

Double convex, transparent part of the eye, located behind the iris and in front of the vitreous body. Serves in conjunction with the cornea to refract incoming rays of light onto the retina.

Posterior capsule

This is a thin membrane that holds the crystalline lens in place.

Vitreous

This is the gel that fills the eye and allows it to maintain its shape. It also serves as a clear pathway for light when it travels from the lens to the retina.

Macula

Yellow spot on the retina, where the photoreceptors are most dense and responsible for the central vision. Has the greatest concentration of cones, responsible for visual acuity and the ability to see in color.

Retina

The retina is the nerve center of the eye where light is converted into an electrical signal that travels to the brain. Cells, called rods and cones, within the retina transmit these signals along the optic nerve, thereby enabling sight.

Optic Nerve

Bundle of nerve fibers that connect the retina with the brain. The optic nerve carries signals of light to the area of the brain called the visual cortex, which assembles the signals into images called vision.

Seibel Vision Surgery provides this on-line information for educational and communication purposes only and it should not be construed as personal medical advice. Our mission is to provide an overview of these topics. For more in-depth information, please discuss any vision issues with Dr. Seibel or other eye care professional.

Information published on this web site is not intended to replace, supplant, or augment a consultation with an eye care professional regarding the your own medical care. Seibel Vision Surgery disclaims any and all liability for injury or other damages that could result from use of the information obtained from this site. Please read our full disclaimer.

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At Seibel Vision Surgery, your eyes and vision are of paramount importance. To help you make the most informed decisions regarding the welfare of your vision, we are delighted to be of service and are happy to answer any questions you may have.

Please take the time to familiarize yourself with the information contained on this site. We have compiled it especially for you!

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